mercury Mercury
As Arsenic
selenium Selenium antimony Antimony bismuth Bismuth tellurium Tellurium

All about Bi

Bi in Liquid, Solid and Gaseous Media

Bismuth applications

P S Analytical are experts in the determination and speciation of selenium, arsenic, mercury, antimony, tellurium and bismuth.

We supply dedicated analysis systems for total tellurium measurements, as well as providing contract analytical services to clients worldwide.


Bismuth, which has been known since ancient times, was often confused with lead and tin. Bismuth was first shown to be a distinct element in 1753 by Claude Geoffroy the Younger.

Bismuth occurs in nature and in such minerals as bismuthinite and bismite. The largest deposits of bismuth are found in Bolivia.

Visit our all about bismuth page for general information on bismuth, its properties, and how it impacts on the environment.

Bismuth in Water and Soils and other mediaMillennium Excalibur

The Millennium Excalibur is used routinely by laboratories worldwide for the determination of total tellurium in various solid, liquid and gaseous sample types.

Applications range from environmental samples such as fresh water, soil, sea water, estuarine water, sludge, coal and grass to clinical samples such as blood and hair, to foods e.g. wheat, milk and baby food to industiral applications such as mine tailings, aluminium and zinc electrolytes.

For further information visit our application notes page for a list of published applications. If you require additional or information on a specific applications please complete our information request form.

For information on our Millennium Excalibur system for Bi in solids, liquids and gaseous samples please click here


Useful external links:

The link below will take you to the ChemTalk website. ChemTalk is a non-profit organization, providing educational tools dedicated to making chemistry fun and easy to learn.